Tourism – Selling the Known and the Mysterious

Picture 1Today I offer a Southern Pacific Railroad broadside promoting California tourism. This example, a William Howard Bull print from 1897, features elements of the known: Christianity, combined with the foreignness of Spanish mission architecture.

This type of imagery proved enticing indeed for well-to-do easterners looking to broaden their life experiences with a trip to the Pacific coast. Many found the region so appealing that they stuck around (and gave me something to write about…thanks).

But whether they stayed temporarily or set up housekeeping one thing is for sure: tourism never really faded. Anyone trying to find a parking place on a weekend day in Hollywood can attest to that.

With compliments,



Lt. Colonel Allen Allensworth – A Significant First

Picture 1Allen Allensworth was born into slavery in Kentucky in 1842. Like many others, the Civil War brought an opportunity to escape to Union lines. Allensworth took this opportunity and joined with the Union hospital Corps after escaping to an encampment of the 44th Illinois Volunteer Regiment – a unit camped near Louisville. In 1863, he joined the US Navy, where he was soon promoted to Captain’s Steward serving on the Gunboat Queen’s City.

After the war, he pursued a life of preaching, married, and eventually returned to the Army as the Chaplain of the 24th Infantry Regiment – the Buffalo Soldiers – holding the rank of Captain, he was among the few black officers in the Army. By the time of his retirement in 1906, he had reached the rank of Lt. Colonel – the first black man to do so.

Allensworth is quickly becoming a person of great interest to me. After his retirement, he moved to Los Angeles, California and worked to develop a black community north of Bakersfield. The town of Allensworth, founded in 1908, was meant to be entirely self sufficient – free from racism, and free from the travails of the post Reconstruction South.

Sadly, the town failed. The problem – no water: a problem that comes up a lot in California. AllensPicture 2worth returned to Los Angeles where, in 1914,  he was ingloriously killed in a motorcycle accident. He is buried in the GAR plot at Rosedale Cemetery in Los Angeles.

Allensworth is among several men in my current study of Union veterans who moved Southern California after the war. Did Allensworth develop an identity as a westerner? What sort of identities was he dealing with in a post-Union victory United States that helped inform a possible western outlook? Several identity layers may indeed surface – racial, sectional, gender, class. We shall see – I am planning several trips to the archives including a road trip to the remnants of what was once Allensworth, California.

One thing that is great about this project – it turns out that Los Angeles has a much richer Civil War connection than I had previously thought.

With compliments,


When did Southern California “Civilize”?

Of course, there are certainly many of you who will claim Southern California is still working on it. Indeed, what is “civilization”? Well, 19th century intellectuals had a pretty good idea what it was. When Irish poet and author Oscar Wilde set out on an American tour in 1882 he noted: “Like the helianthus, I shall wend my willing way toward the Occidental uttermost of American civilization.” Wilde was speaking of California…but specifically San Francisco – a city that did process the trappings of late 19th century Anglo civilization: a cultivation of the arts, the political machinations of a democrat republic, sewers.
Americans agreed with Wilde’s assessments. If you were looking for “civilization” out west, then San Francisco was the place.
In contrast, Southern California was still a little rough and tumble in the 1880s – at least from the perspective of white America and Europe. But developments leaning to a perceived American civilization were well underway. Southern California was in both a transformative and additive period. A massive influx of settlers from the east was just getting moving. Southern California was on the brink of nationalization. But like everything else in the Southland, things proceeded on different terms. Stay tuned. Hint: the weather made a difference.
Incidentally, when Wilde stepped off the train in the Golden State he was wearing a Spanish sombrero, velvet suit, puce cravat, yellow gloves, and buckled shoes. Fierce.

With compliments,

Civil War Generation Database – Los Angeles

IMG_0412 I have just kicked off an ambitious project to catalog the Civil War generation who moved to – and then died (and were thus buried) in Los Angeles. I am beginning with those who I can positively identify as veterans of the United States Army and Navy. I am also checking up on all of those who fit the Civil War generation’s bill as well. Today I came across the grave of Moses Pratt in the Hollywood Forever Cemetery on Santa Monica Blvd. His grave is located near the south-east corner of the cemetery, underneath a pair of supportive beams holding up some shrubbery, next to a few implements used to feed feral cats. My guess is that Pratt, a former private with the 154th Illinois Infantry, has been forgotten in this rarely visited section of Hollywood Forever. So I think I will get a little United States flag for his grave.

Pratt’s unit was mustered in late in the war – February 1865 to be exact – and never saw any real action. He spent his life in the army guarding the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad in Tennessee (Department of the Cumberland) until he was mustered out in September of the same year. I wonder what brought him to the Golden State?

With compliments,


PS – Naturally, once the database gets a little meat on its bones, I will make it available to all…with pictures and everything. You’re welcome.

IMG_0410  IMG_0409

You Ask, I Answer: Advice for a Prospective Graduate Student

University_of_Virginia_Rotunda_2006From time to time I will get a note from a former student who is contemplating graduate school in the humanities. They want to know what to expect. I always direct them to a blog post I wrote waaaay back when Cosmic America was a thing. This post got quite a bit of traction…it was retweeted a zillion times (give or take a few) and it even made the AHA website. So I offer it to you, again, but here at Keith Harris history. For those of you who are my former students or who just stumble on this…enjoy. It may offer some insights. And remember…the original post is from July, 2011. Some things may have changed since then. But they probably haven’t.



The other day, I got an email from a prospective graduate student who is in the process of applying to schools, including my alma mater – the University of Virginia. He wanted to know what to expect once he hit the ground (the prospective student shall remain anonymous…so that my colleagues  – one of whom recently described the idea as a suicide mission – don’t try and contact him and talk him out of his rather ambitious endeavor).

I answer here in the hope that others might think a little more about what they are getting themselves in to. I will take on – in my own colloquial style – his questions one at a time. Keep in mind that these are my personal experiences and may not necessarily reflect the experiences of all students in grad school. At any rate, the questions are in italics. And best of luck to you, my anonymous friend.

Why did you decide to pursue your Ph. D. in history?

In the abstract, I have been a history guy my entire life…I wanted to talk about it all the time, and so college seemed the logical course to take. For a more tangible reason…I had a lot of questions that were unanswered but did not have the tools necessary to answer them – at least I didn’t think so. There is an enormous amount of information out there – both primary and secondary – in libraries, repositories, and on the Internet. This is, of course, both a blessing and a curse. What on earth was I going to do with it all? How was I going to sort through everything and make sense of it? So I came up with the crazy notion that professional training was the answer.

Can you describe a typical week when school is in session?

I am going to go with year one here – because I found that to be the most challenging. Not to say that things got any easier as I went through the program…there are all sorts of hurdles to cross that will put you through changes (specifically….qualifying examinations). Let’s just say that my first year was a sobering one. I like to describe it as an effort to take a sip of water from a fire hose. At UVA, first year Americanists (and this is typical for many programs) take a mandatory series of courses that bury students deep deep deep in the literature. Contextualization is the goal – making historiography make sense, I suppose. But a week goes something like this: you read, then you read, then you read some more, then you get in some reading, and when you are all done – you read some. I was assigned thousands of pages each week. So guess what – prepare to get some reading in. Don’t take this lightly. It can be (and was for many of my classmates) overwhelming. Keep in mind also, you will be attending classes, writing papers for this primary course load as well as two other classes each semester. Maybe, if you get a minute, you can meet some of your mates for a beer – so you can talk about the week’s reading assignments. Did I mention that you will do a lot of reading? Oh, and one other thing. If you do not have one already, first year graduate students at UVA also write their Master’s Thesis.

Do you have an extra job besides your full-time commitment to school?

HAHAHAHAHA – but sadly, yes. Most students are assigned graderships in their first year and then teach sections from then on. I also picked up a little gig at the special collections library to fill my “spare” time and make some extra money (turns out, this was a good thing. I managed to simultaneously do on-the-job research for my MA). The University places limits on how many hours one can work each week – the logic being: you will not get distracted by work and will be able to focus on your studies. The reality is that the few hours permitted to prepare for section discussions or even grade a stack of 120 mid-term essays is entirely unrealistic. Do not expect to get much sleep.

Are you pursuing any research-related opportunities this summer? Is this typical?

Dude, my advice to you is to go to Cabo. But since you are a glutton for punishment – as evidenced by your desire to actually pursue an advanced degree in the humanities given the current state of affairs – you won’t. Yes, many students, myself included, seek research opportunities during the summer (and holidays breaks as well). There are plenty of them out there depending on your topic, many are funded…some generously (check out Gilder-Lerhman – they made my life very easy when I was researching for my dissertation).

How did you fulfill the foreign language requirement?

At UVA, Americanists are required to “master” one language, Europeanists need two, and the Classics Department insists that you speak and read everything. You will take a proficiency exam your first year, and a mastery exam your second. I dug deep in to the recesses of my mind to recall high school Spanish and the many conversations I had with Latino friends in Los Angeles. Then I studied my ass off to get verb conjugations right (the Spanish Department lets you use a dictionary, so vocabulary is not really an issue).

How much is intellectual diversity explicitly encouraged in the academic community in general and your class in particular? In what ways are certain points of view discouraged within the academic community?

I am going after you on these questions – I give them a C-. Don’t take it personally. After all, you are going to have to develop a think skin. Criticism in grad school can be brutal – from all sides – your advisor (if he or she is any good) will hold you accountable for every word you write, your professors will humble you in ways you cannot yet imagine, and your peers will (or rather, will probably) delight in tearing you a new one, so to speak. In short, your questions make grand assumptions. One, that intellectual diversity is explicitly encouraged and two, certain points of view are discouraged in the academic community. My answer to these problematic questions is concise: you will encounter both, neither, or any combination of the two. All of this depends of any variety of factors…egos, personalities, background, politics…you name it. My experience, overall, was very good. My professors encouraged me to follow lines of inquiry as I saw fit – but, and here is the real nugget, they insisted I produce the goods. Not a single professor (some of the most prominent historians in my chosen and outside fields, mind you) ever tolerated sloppy research. Even what I thought was on the money was challenged, criticized, and punched squarely in the face. My advisor once made me cry. It was pathetic. Let’s just say I went back to the drawing board more than once. But it made me a better historian. For that I am grateful.

Any general advice you wish someone would have told you when you were applying for admission to this program that you would want prospective students to know?

Yes – everything in your life will suffer for this. Your relationships, your finances, maybe even your physical and mental health. On the other hand, you will meet some smart people, develop lasting friendships, and most importantly, you will come out the other end (hopefully) prepared to place your own stamp on the literature – what some smart-ass grad student will come along and destroy in ten years or so.

Best of luck my friend, and always feel free to seek me out if you need further advice!

With compliments,


Americana. Public History. Historical Memory.